Amniotic fluid (AF) is the protective media which surrounds the amnion, the sac which encloses a developing fetus in the womb. This amniotic membrane (AM) and fluid have been found to be excellent sources of stem cells or precursor cells that have the ability to multiply and transform into cells of any tissue. Stem cells aid in the repair and regeneration of tissues and can be used to treat various orthopedic injuries and conditions.
The amniotic membrane and amniotic fluid are usually discarded after birth but may be obtained from a donor with prior consent after a cesarean section. It is then developed into a biologic therapy which can be cryopreserved or frozen for later use.
Amniotic fluid stem cell therapy may be used to treat wounds, soft tissue defects and joint conditions. These stem cells may be applied topically or injected into deep tissues. Besides stem cells, they also contain growth factors, proteins and other extracellular components which facilitate the healing process, reduce inflammation and act as a scaffold for new tissue growth.